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Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a subtype of soft tissue sarcoma that is derived from smooth muscles located in the uterus and soft tissue. The most frequently involved organs are the retroperitoneal space, extremities, and uterus. Despite its low annual incidence (approximately 0.36–0.64 per 100000 women), leiomyosarcoma accounts for nearly 70% of all uterine sarcomas and is responsible for a considerable proportion of deaths because of uterine cancer.

Unfortunately, typical techniques such as CT and MRI including tumor biomarker for detection of cancer, have low sensitivity for differentiating uterine leiomyosarcoma from fibroids before the operation taking place for uterine fibroid removal. Basically, reliable detection of LMS before surgery is not feasible currently. Therefore, LMS can only be confirmed post the operation where a sample from the removed fibroid(s) is sent for histology.

In all combined surgical removal of fibroids, the prevalence of LMS is 1.7 in 1000 procedure.

Table 1. summarises the prevalence of undiagnosed uterine leiomyosarcoma in women undergoing hysterectomy or myomectomy for benign uterine fibroids suspected.

Procedure Sub-type Prevalence
All age < 50 years of age
Myomectomy All combined 4.2 in 1000
Abdominal 5.2 in 1000
Keyhole 3 in 1000
Hysteroscopic 8.6 in 1000
Hysterectomy All combined 1.1 in 1000
Abdominal 5.4 in 1000
Keyhole 1 in 1000

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Last updated on Monday 1 February 2021 11:57 am.